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See also Urological Uses.

American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. (2014). Clinical Management Principles.

American Urological Association Foundation. (2005). A Basic Guide to Bladder Health: How Much Do You Know About Your Bladder?

Czarapata, B. J. (1995, October). Super-Strength Aloe vera capsules in interstitial cystitis, painful bladder syndrome, chronic pelvic pain, and nonbacterial prostatitis: A double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial using Desert Harvest Aloe vera at the Urology Wellness Center, Rockville, Maryland. Proceedings of the NIDDK Scientific Symposium, San Diego, California. National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

Abstract: Because of the promising anecdotal findings of interstitial cystitis (IC) patients who had tried Desert Harvest’s super-strength, freeze-dried Aloe vera capsules, the Urology Wellness Center (UWC) in Rockville, Maryland, designed a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of this highly concentrated form of the Aloe vera plant in 13 IC/PBS patients. The study included three months of placebo followed by three months of Aloe vera or vice versa, depending on randomization. The study included a cross-over segment, with each patient receiving both substances at some point during the study and acting as her/his own control. The patients were assigned control numbers randomized by computer, and the products were shipped directly to the patient every month by the blinded manufacturer. The primary objective of the study was to monitor the safety and efficacy of Desert Harvest’s concentrated super-strength, freeze-dried Aloe veracapsules in the management of the symptoms of IC/PBS. The symptoms that were monitored included urinary frequency, nocturia, dysuria, urgency, and suprapubic pain. Response to therapy was monitored by Quality-of-Life Assessment, IC Symptom/Problem Index, Health Status Questionnaire, and 24-Hour Voiding Diary. Of the 13 patients who were recruited for the study, 8 completed the full six months of the trial. Of the 8 patients who completed the study, 7 patients received relief from at least some of their symptoms of pelvic pain, frequency of urination, pressure, or nocturia (87.5%). Four patients experienced significant relief from all or most of their symptoms (50%). Only one patient had no response after completing all six months of the study (12.5%).

Desert Harvest. (2015). A History of Hope. Hillsborough, NC: Desert Harvest, Inc.

Desert Harvest. (2015). IC and Aloe Vera. Hillsborough, NC: Desert Harvest, Inc.

Fmoin, A. (n.d.). Nocturnal incontinence (urine dribbling) in children treated by Aloe extract. Extract of Aloe, Supplement to Clinical Data, by Medexport, USSR, Moscow.

Abstract: Treatment of nocturnal incontinence in children by Aloe vera.

Hanno, P. M., Burks, D. A., Clemens, J. Q., Dmochowski, R. R., Erickson, D., FitzGerald, M. P., Forrest, J. B., Gordon, B., Gray, M., Mayer, R. D., Newman, D. K., Nyberg, L. Jr., Payne, C. K., Wesselmann, U., and Faraday, M. M. (2014, September). American Urological Association (AUA) Guideline: Diagnosis and Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome.Linthicum, MD: American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.

Abstract: The purpose of this Guideline is to provide a clinical framework for the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS).

IC Network. (2014, October). IC Treatments: Six Logical Steps. Healdburg, CA: IC Network.

International Painful Bladder Foundation. (2015, January). IPBF e-Newsletter and Research Update, Issue 38, 1-19.

Abstract: An IPBF update for patient support groups, healthcare professionals and friends around the world in the field of interstitial cystitis, bladder pain syndrome/painful bladder syndrome, hypersensitive bladder, ketamine cystitis, chronic pelvic pain and associated disorders.

Interstitial Cystitis Association. (2014, September). Official AUA Guidelines for IC, McLean, VA: ICA.

Abstract: The American Urological Association (AUA) clinical guidelines for IC have been updated to be current with recent and newly published research. The guidelines help to end the all-too-common misdiagnosis, underdiagnosis, mistreatment, and undertreatment, especially undertreatment of pain.

Kranjcec, B., and Papes, D. (2014, February). D-mannose powder for prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: A randomized clinical trial. World Journal of Urology, 32(1), 79-84.

Abstract: To test whether d-mannose powder is effective for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) prevention.

Kyker, K. D., Coffman, J., and Hurst, R. E. (2005, March 23). Exogenous glycosaminoglycans coat damaged bladder surfaces in experimentally damaged mouse bladder. BMC Urology, 5,4.

Abstract: Interstitial cystitis is often treated with exogenous glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, chondroitin sulphate (Uracyst), hyaluronate (Cystistat) or the semi-synthetic pentosan polysulphate (Elmiron). The mechanism of action is presumed to be due to a coating of the bladder surface to replace the normally present chondroitin sulphate and heparin sulphate lost as a result of the disease. This study used fluorescent labeled chondroitin sulphate to track the distribution of glycosaminoglycans administered intravesically to mouse bladder that had been damaged on the surface. Glycosaminoglycan administered intravesically does bind to damaged bladder. Given that the changes seen following bladder damage resemble those seen naturally in interstitial cystitis, the mechanisms proposed for the action of these agents is consistent with the coating of damaged bladder.

Nudolskaya, O. E. (1960). Aloe treatment of onchocerclasis (craw-craw) of the vulva. Sovetskaia Meditsina, 24(2).

Abstract: Complex therapy with Aloe preparations proved to be very effective; it is recommend to gynecologists for wide use in the treatment of patients suffering from onchocerclasis of the vulva.

Payne, C. (2013, September-October). The pain of painful bladder. Canadian Urol Assoc Journal, 7(9-10) S203-5.

Abstract: Bladder pain can have a number of different etiologies. This brief summary provides an overview of bladder pain syndrome, including current evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management.

Phatak, S., and Foster, H. E., Jr. (2006, January). The management of interstitial cystitis: An update. Nature Clinical Practice: Urology, 3(1), 45-53.

Abstract: Literature review on pain management for interstitial cystitis, including chronic pelvic pain, clinical trials, neuropathic pain, and bladder physiology.

Porru, D., Parmigiani, A., Tinelli, C., Barletta, D., Chjoussos, D., Di Franco, C., Bobbi, V., Bassi, S., Miller, O., Gardella, B., Nappi, R. E., Spinillo, A., and Rovereto, B. (2014, May). Oral D-mannose in recurrent urinary tract infections in women: A pilot study. Journal of Clinical Urology, 7(3), 208-213.

Abstract: In recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) usual prophylactic antibiotic regimes do not change the long-term risk of recurrence. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of D-mannose in the treatment and prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs. Methods: In this randomized cross-over trial female patients were eligible for the study if they had an acute symptomatic UTI and three or more recurrent UTIs during the preceding 12 months. Suitable patients were randomly assigned to antibiotic treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or to a regimen of oral D-mannose 1 g 3 times a day, every 8 hours for 2 weeks, and subsequently 1 g twice a day for 22 weeks. They received the other intervention in the second phase of the study, with no further antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary endpoint was evaluation of the elapsed time to recurrence; secondary endpoints were evaluation of bladder pain (VASp) and urinary urgency (VASu). Results: The results for quantitative variables were expressed as mean values and SD as they were all normally distributed (Shapiro-Wilk test). In total, 60 patients aged between 22 and 54 years (mean 42 years) were included. Mean time to UTI recurrence was 52.7 days with antibiotic treatment, and 200 days with oral D-mannose (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Mean VASp, VASu score, and average numbers of 24-hour voidings decreased significantly. D-mannose appeared to be a safe and effective treatment for recurrent UTIs in adult women. A significant difference was observed in the proportion of women remaining infection free versus antibiotic treatment.

Van de Merwe, J., and Nordling, J. (2006, February 28). Interstitial cystitis: Definitions and confusable diseases. Proceedings of ESSIC Meeting 2005 Baden, 1-13.

Abstract: This report is the summary of the consensus obtained on definitions and confusable diseases for painful bladder syndrome / interstitial cystitis during the ESSIC meeting in Baden, 16-18 June 2005.

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