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Ahmadi, A. (2012, August). Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients. Chinese Journal of Integrated Medicine, 18(8), 635-640.

Abstract: In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and anti-inflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immuno-modulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers.

Abstract: In vitro studies indicate that aloe has immunomodulatory, anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Emodin, an extract of aloe, inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer cell lines via p53- and p21-dependent pathways. One study showed topical aloe vera to be superior to silver sulfadiazine (drug information on silver sulfadiazine) cream, an agent commonly used to treat second-degree burns. A few trials have explored aloe’s anticancer effects. Concurrent oral administration of aloe with chemotherapy was reported to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic cancers and to prevent oral mucositis. Data on topical aloe’s role in alleviating radiation therapy-induced skin damage are inconsistent. More research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of aloe vera in cancer patients.

Abstract: The present study, anti-cancer property of Aloe vera was evaluated against 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice. A single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (100 g/100 l of acetone), followed 2 weeks later by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone three times a week) for 16 weeks exhibited 100 percent tumor incidence (group III). In contrast, animals treated topically with Aloe gel (group IV) or orally with Aloe extract (group V) and topical with Aloe gel plus orally with extract (group VI) exhibited 40, 50 and 20 per cent tumor incidence, which significantly higher than 100% tumor incidence in the group III (control). The cumulative number of papillomas during the observation period of 16 weeks was significantly decreased in the Aloe treated groups IV, V and VI (4, 5 and 2 in Aloe gel, Aloe extract, and Aloe gel plus Aloe extract treated animals respectively) in compare to 36 cumulative number of papillomas in carcinogen control group. The average latent period significantly increased from 4.9 weeks in the control group to 5.3, 6.4 and 6.5 weeks in all Aloe treated groups. The tumor burden and tumor yield were significantly lesser (1.33, 1.25 and 1.0 and 0.4, 0.5 and 0.2) as compared to DMBA/croton oil treated control (3.6 and 3.6). Furthermore, the level of lipid peroxidation was significantly lesser than in the control animals (group III) in skin. In addition, depleted levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), DNA, catalase and protein were restored in Aloe-treated groups. The study has revealed the inhibition of dimethylebenz (a) anthracene (DMBA)/croton oil induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice by Aloe vera treatment.

Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor-promoting activity of Aloe vera on 2-stage skin carcinogenesis, induced by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and promoted by treatment of croton oil for 16 weeks in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of aloe leaf extract at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight/d and aloe gel treatment at a dose of 1 mL/9 cm(2)/mice/d was found to be effective in decreasing the number and size of the papillomas. A significant reduction in tumor incidence (40.00+/-5.10, 30.00+/-3.25, and 40.00+/-4.12 for aloe gel, aloe gel and aloe leaf extract combined, and aloe leaf extract alone, respectively) was observed in animals in the aloe extract- and aloe gel-treated groups compared with 100% tumor incidence in the control group. The cumulative number of papillomas during an observation period of 16 weeks was significantly reduced in the aloe-treated groups (8.0+/-0.34, 6.00+/-1.10, and 9.00+/-1.41 for aloe gel, aloe gel and leaf extract, and aloe leaf extract, respectively) compared with a 36+/- 0.98 cumulative number of papillomas in the control group. The average latent period was significantly increased from 4.9+/-0.10 weeks in the control group to 6.37+/-0.12, 6.8+/-0.25, and 6.2+/-0.21 weeks in the aloe-treated groups, respectively. The tumor burden and tumor yield were significantly decreased (2.0+/-0.25, 2.00+/-0.30, and 2.25+/-0.2 and 0.8+/-0.25, 0.6+/-0.32, and 0.9+/-0.28, respectively) as compared with the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated control group (3.6+/-0.10 and 3.6+/-0.19). Furthermore, treatment with aloe gel and/or extract by topical and/or oral administration resulted in a significant increase in the reduced glutathione.

Abstract: Aloe vera gel exhibits protective effects against insulin resistance as well as lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic effects. The anti-diabetic compounds in this gel were identified as Aloe-sterols. Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe-sterols has recently been produced using a new procedure. We previously reported that AVGE reduced large-sized intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), suggesting that Aloe vera gel may protect against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) and AVGE on azoxymethane-induced colorectal preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice fed a HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was used as a solvent for AVGE (HFDC), HFD containing 3% or 1% AVGP, and HFDC containing 0.0125% (H-) or 0.00375% (L-) AVGE. The number of ACF was significantly lower in mice given 3% AVGP and H-AVGE than in those given HFD or HFDC alone. Moreover, 3% AVGP, H-AVGE and L-AVGE significantly decreased the mean Ki-67 labeling index, assessed as a measure of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. In addition, hepatic phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels were higher in the H-AVGE group than in the HFDC group. These results suggest that both AVGP and AVGE may have chemopreventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis
under the HFD condition. Furthermore, the concentration of Aloe-sterols was similar between 3% AVGP and H-AVGE, suggesting that Aloe-sterols were the main active ingredients in this experiment.

Abstract: Aloe vera Linne or aloe barbadensis Miller is a succulent from the Aloe family (400 different species), a tropical plant which is easily grown in hot and dry climates and widely distributed in Asia, Africa, and other tropical areas. The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize all dermatology-oriented in vitro and in vivo experiments and clinical trials on aloe vera preparations. Extensive literature search were carried out to identify all in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on the subject. Data were extracted from these in a predefined standardized manner. Forty studies were located. The results suggest that oral administration of aloe vera in mice is effective on wound healing, can decrease the number and size of papillomas and reduce the incidence of tumors and leishmania parasitemia by >90% in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.

Abstract: From the time immemorial man has been exposed to ionizing radiation from the environment in which he lives. Radiation protection concepts and philosophy have been evolving over the past several decades. Materials and Methods: The radio protective effect of Aloe vera leaf extract (1000 mg/kg b.wt. orally for 15 consecutive days) has been studied against 6 Gy of gamma radiation in the intestine of Swiss albino mice at various post-irradiation intervals viz. 12 hrs, 24 hrs. and 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. Results: Crypt survival, villus length, apoptic cells, mitotic figures and goblet cells in jejunum were studied after irradiation. Irradiation produced a significant decrease in crypt survival, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas goblet and apoptic cells showed a significant increase from sham irradiated animals. The major changes were observed on day 3 after irradiation. AVE pre-treated irradiated animals resulted in a significant increase in the number of crypt cells, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas the counts of apoptic and goblet cells showed a significant decrease from respective control group at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiated animals resulted in the elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione activity. On contrary, AVE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione activity. Conclusion: The present study suggests the possible radio protective ability of Aloe vera leaf extract.

Abstract: Aloe is a genus of medicinal plants with a notable history of medical use. Basic research over the past couple of decades has begun to reveal the extent of Aloe’s pharmaceutical potential, particularly against neoplastic disease. This review looks at Aloe, both the genus and the folk medicine, often being called informally “aloes”, and delineates their chemistry and anticancer pharmacognosy. Structures of key compounds are provided, and their pharmacological activities reviewed. Particular attention is given to their free radical scavenging, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory properties. This review highlights major research directions on aloes, reflecting the enormous potential of natural sources, and of the genus Aloe in particular, in preventing and treating cancer.

Abstract: The International Aloe Science Council (IASC) responded to the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) recent news release telling consumers to avoid taking aloe vera orally, with what IASC executive director, Devon Powell, called “some simple facts.” Recently published studies on consumer products showed no carcinogenic effects. Purified (decolorized) aloe vera: no known carcinogenic concerns according to internationally recognized cancer organization. The vast majority of aloe vera products for oral consumption are decolorized or purified. The NTP test article is chemically distinct from what is found in consumer products for oral consumption.

Abstract: Homeopathic medicines are used by patients with cancer, often alongside conventional treatment. Cancer treatments can cause considerable morbidity and one of the reasons patients use homeopathic medicines is to help with adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate effectiveness and safety of homeopathic medicines used to prevent or treat adverse effects of cancer treatments. CONCLUSIONS: This review found preliminary data in support of the efficacy of topical calendula for prophylaxis of acute dermatitis during radiotherapy and Traumeel S mouthwash in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. These trials need replicating. There is no convincing evidence for the efficacy of homeopathic medicines for other adverse effects of cancer treatments. Further research is required.

Abstract: This breakthrough research report identifies the ingredient that gives Aloe its anti-tumor characteristic on the cellular level.

Abstract: We have carried out a clinical study to evaluate whether the concomitant administration of aloe may enhance the therapeutic results of MLT in patients with advanced solid tumors for whom no effective standard anticancer therapies are available. Both treatments were well tolerated. This preliminary study would suggest that natural cancer therapy with MLT plus A. vera extracts may produce some therapeutic benefits, at least in terms of stabilization of disease and survival, in patients with advanced solid tumors, for whom no other standard effective therapy is available.

Abstract: The recent advances in the analysis of tumor immuno-biology suggest the possibility of biologically manipulating the efficacy and toxicity of cancer chemotherapy by endogenous or exogenous immuno-modulating substances. Aloe is one of the of the most important plants exhibiting anticancer activity and its anti-neoplastic property is due to at least three different mechanisms, based on anti-proliferative, immuno-stimulatory and antioxidant effects. The anti-proliferative action is determined by anthracenic and anthraquinonic molecules, while the immuno-stimulating activity is mainly due to acemannan. Patients and Methods: A study was planned to include 240 patients with metastatic solid tumor who were randomized to receive chemotherapy with or without Aloe. According to tumor histotype and clinical status, lung cancer patients were treated with Cisplatin and Etoposide or weekly Vinorelbine, colorectal cancer patients received Oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), gastric cancer patients
were treated with weekly 5-FU and pancreatic cancer patients received weekly Gemcitabine. Aloe was given orally at 10 ml thrice/daily. Results: The percentage of both objective tumor regressions and disease control was significantly higher in patients concomitantly treated with Aloe than with chemotherapy alone, as well as the percent of 3-year survival patients. Conclusion: This study seems to suggest that Aloe may be successfully associated with chemotherapy to increase its efficacy in terms of both tumor regression rate and survival time.

Abstract: The recent advances in understanding the immunobiological interactions responsible for cancer progression have allowed us to define the mechanisms of action of some plants, whose antitumor properties were already known by the popular Medicine, in particular Aloe and Myrrha, whose mixture was already therapeutically utilized more than 2000 years ago by the Essence medicine. Moreover, some endogenous natural substances, namely the main hormone produced by the pineal gland melatonin (MLT) may also play anticancer activity. On this basis, a study was performed with a biological regimen consisting of MLT, Aloe and Myrrha in untreatable metastatic cancer patients with life expectancy lower than 1 year. Methods: The study included 35 patients. MLT was given orally at 20 mg/day in the evening and a mixed Aloe and Myrrha tincture was administered at a dose of 5 ml/thrice daily. Results: The clinical response consisted of complete response (CR) in 1, partial response (PR) in 2, stable disease (SD) in 19 patients, whereas the remaining 13 patients had a progressive disease (PD). Thus, a disease control (CR + PR + SD) was achieved in 22/35 (63%)patients. Moreover, a survival longer than 1 year was achieved in 17/35 (49%) patients. Finally, DC was associated with an evident improvement in the immune status, namely consisting of a decrease in the number of T regulatory lymphocytes, which are the main cells responsible for the suppression of the anticancer immunity. Conclusion: This preliminary study shows that a biological anticancer regimen consisting of the pineal hormone MLT in association with Aloe and Myrrha mixture, already known at the times of the Essence medical tradition, may induce a control of the neoplastic disease by stimulating the anticancer immunity, in a relevant percentage metastatic cancer patients, who did not respond to the conventional anticancer treatments and for whom no other standard therapy was available.

Abstract: Abstract: Background: Mortality rates for leukemia are high despite considerable improvements in treatment. Since polyphenols exert pro-apoptotic effects in solid tumors, our study investigated the effects of polyphenols in haematological malignancies. The effect of eight polyphenols (quercetin, chrysin, apigenin, emodin, aloe-emodin, rhein, cisstilbene and trans-stilbene) were studied on cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in four lymphoid and four myeloid leukemic cells lines, together with normal haematopoietic control cells. Methods: Cellular proliferation was measured by CellTiter-Glo luminescent assay; and cell cycle arrest was assessed using flow cytometry of propidium iodide stained cells. Apoptosis was investigated by caspase-3 activity assay using flow cytometry and apoptotic morphology was confirmed by Hoescht 33342 staining. Results: Emodin, quercetin, and cis-stilbene were the most effective polyphenols at decreasing cell viability (IC50 values of 5-22 µM, 8-33 µM, and 25-85 µM respectively) and inducing apoptosis (AP50 values (the concentration which 50% of cells undergo apoptosis) of 2-27 µM, 19-50 µM, and 8-50 µM, respectively). Generally, lymphoid cell lines were more sensitive to polyphenol treatment compared to myeloid cell lines, however the most resistant myeloid (KG-1a and K562) cell lines were still found to respond to emodin and quercetin treatment at low micromolar levels. Non-tumor cells were less sensitive to all polyphenols compared to the leukemia cells. Conclusions: These findings suggest that polyphenols have anti-tumor activity against leukemia cells with differential effects. Importantly, the differential sensitivity of emodin, quercetin, and cis-stilbene between leukemia and normal cells suggests that polyphenols are potential therapeutic agents for leukemia.

Abstract: Study of the healing qualities of the Aloe vera plant.

Abstract: Administration of Aloe vera in various forms has been shown to inhibit the growth of animal cancers or to actually bring about shrinkage of already-grown tumors. From all the other knowledge we have about the actions of Aloe, it appears that the effects of Aloe upon tumors is mediated via the immume system. This newsletter presents a general discussion of the formation and growth of cancers from the standpoint of Aloe and one other plant extract substance, bromelain, whose actions may well synergize usefully with those of Aloe.

Abstract: The effectiveness of nonsteroid topical agents for the prevention of acute dermatitis during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast carcinoma has not been demonstrated. The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of calendula (Pommade au Calendula par Digestion; Boiron Ltd, Levallois-Perret, France) with that of Trolamine (Biafine; Genmedix Ltd, France), which is considered in many institutions to be the reference topical agent. Between July 1999 and June 2001, 254 patients who had been operated on for breast cancer and who were to receive postoperative radiation therapy were randomly allocated to application of either Trolamine (128 patients) or calendula (126 patients) on the irradiated fields after each session. The primary end point was the occurrence of acute dermatitis of grade 2 or higher. Prognostic factors, including treatment modalities and patient characteristics, were also investigated. Secondary end points were the occurrence of pain, the quantity of topical agent used, and patient satisfaction. The occurrence of acute dermatitis of grade 2 or higher was significantly lower (41% v 63%; P < .001) with the use of calendula than with Trolamine. Moreover, patients receiving calendula had less frequent interruption of radiotherapy and significantly reduced radiation-induced pain. Calendula was considered to be more difficult to apply, but self-assessed satisfaction was greater. Body mass index and adjuvant chemotherapy before radiotherapy after lumpectomy were significant prognostic factors for acute dermatitis. Calendula is highly effective for the prevention of acute dermatitis of grade 2 or higher and should be proposed for patients undergoing postoperative irradiation for breast cancer.

Abstract: In this study, we tested the antiproliferative effects of mannan from Aloe saponaria using normal murine (SpMC) and human cells (PBMC) and several tumoral cell lines. Employing flow cytometry, it could be determined that mannan inhibits the proliferative response in normal and tumoral cells. Mannan affects the expression of CD3+ SpMC indicating that mannan inhibits mainly T lymphocyte proliferative response. Also in SpMC cultured with or without
mitogen mannan produces an increase of an activation marker (CD25). On C1498 cell line, mannan reduces CD3 expression and abolishes the CD25 expression. In conclusion, mannan has a dual beneficial effect when applied to normal and tumoral cells at the same time by inhibiting the activation of cancer cells and improving that of normal ones.

Abstract: The effect of two doses (30 µl and 60 µl/day/mice daily for 14 days) of the fresh leaf pump extract of Aloe vera was examined on carcinogen-metabolizing phase-I and phase-II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of mice. The modulatory effect of the pulp extract was also examined on extrahepatic organs (lung, kidney, and forestomach) for the activities of glutathione S-transferace, DT-diophorase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. The positive control mice were treated with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Significant increases in the levels of acid-soluble sulfhydryl (-SH) content, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, glutathione S-transferase (GST), DT-diaphorase (DTD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR) were observed in the liver. Aloe vera significantly reduced the levels of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5. Thus, Aloe vera is clearly an inducer of phase-II enzyme system. Treatment with both doses of Aloe caused a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against prooxidant-induced membrane and cellular damage. The microsomal and cytosolic protein was significantly enhanced by Aloe vera, indicating the possibility of its involvement in the induction of protein synthesis. BHA, an antioxidant compound, provided the authenticity of our assay protocol and response of animals against modulator. The pump extract was effective in inducing GST, DTD, SOD, and catalase as measured in extrahepatic organs. Thus, besides liver, other organs (lung, kidney, and forestomach) were also influenced favorably by Aloe vera in order to detoxify reactive metabolites, including chemical carcinogens and drugs.

Abstract: Our previous study showed that aloe polysaccharides (AP) could evidently decrease the mortality of irradiated mice mainly through increasing the amount of hemocytes and ameliorating immune function of mice. Whether AP can protect the cells in vitro from irradiation damage is unknown. This study was to explore radioprotective effect of AP on 3 non-tumor cell lines, and its effect on cell cycle. AP has radioprotective effect on non-tumor cells. This effect might relate to alleviating of cell cycle turbulence.

Abstract: A landmark report on the function of Aloe vera as a biogenic or cellular stimulator. Dr. Winders also found the importance of having effective Aloe vera. As shown by his study, the biogenic stimulator ability of Aloe vera can be reduced or even reversed by improper processing. Effective Aloe vera enhanced normal cells while not helping tumor cells, showing a marvelous selectivity to health producing function.